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UPSC Indian Forest Service (Main) Examination, 2019 Time Table

Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) has published Time Table for the Indian Forest Service (Main) Examination 2019, Check below for more details.

The Basics of Asbestos
For the last several decades, more and more studies, data, and reports continue to link asbestos to health issues in humans. This includes different forms of incurable cancer. But what is asbestos and why is it dangerous?

Asbestos is a naturally occurring mineral that is incredibly light and durable. It is made out of microscopic fibers that bundle together. These fibers make asbestos resistant to heat, electricity, and water damage. These properties made asbestos extremely appealing for use in construction materials and other consumer products.

Asbestos is found in serpentine and mafic rock deposits across the globe. Because it is so abundant and light, it can be mined at a very low cost. Once it is mined, asbestos can be developed into valuable products for different industries. Asbestos-containing products are used by in construction, shipbuilding, and manufacturing industries around the world.

Asbestos has many good properties and was once hailed as a “miracle mineral.” However, it has also been linked to diseases like cancer. The sad reality is asbestos companies knew that their products could cause cancer. Even worse, they did nothing to warn workers or consumers. Decades later, people who were exposed to asbestos are now developing cancer and other health issues.


As a result, the U.S. government ordered asbestos companies to establish trust funds for asbestos victims. For several decades, they have also encouraged manufacturers not to use asbestos-based products, though asbestos remains legal for some uses to this day.

Asbestos Properties
Use of asbestos dates back to Ancient Egypt. In modern history, asbestos has been used for over 100 years. Starting in the late 1800s, it was commercially mined. By the 1930s, asbestos had become a key material for the construction and shipbuilding industries. Due to its number of seemingly useful applications, it would be widely used until the 1980s.

Properties of asbestos include:

Insulation: Asbestos is resistant to fire, electricity, and water. It also is a natural soundproofing material. This makes it useful as an insulator for electrical wires, pipes, and walls, among other things.
Abundance: Asbestos is found around the world, including countries such as the U.S., Canada, China, and South Africa. This abundance makes asbestos cheap to mine and sell. Given its uses and prevalence, asbestos became a billion-dollar industry.
Fibrous: Asbestos is made up of thousands of tiny fibers. These fibers make asbestos lightweight. While this makes asbestos helpful for building and insulation, it can also cause problems. If asbestos is disturbed, its fibers can dislodge and become airborne. This makes the fibers easy for people to ingest or inhale.
Durability: When asbestos-containing products were first manufactured, they were hailed for their strength and ability to resist heat, electricity, and flame. Asbestos fibers interlock and become nearly impossible to destroy. However, because these microscopic fibers are so tough, they will not easily leave your body if they are inhaled or swallowed.
Types of Asbestos
Currently, researchers have identified 6 types of asbestos, all of which are now known to be dangerous.

The 6 types of asbestos are:

Actinolite: Actinolite asbestos was used in drywall, paint, and other materials. In its natural state, it exists in a few different colors such as green, gray, and black.
Amosite: Also known as “brown asbestos,” amosite asbestos was frequently used to make buildings. It is the second-most commonly used type of asbestos in the U.S.
Anthophyllite: Anthophyllite asbestos is the rarest form of the mineral. As a result, it was only used occasionally in products like cement.
Chrysotile: Chrysotile asbestos is the most common form of the mineral. It is made up of long, curly fibers. It is also known as “white asbestos.”
Crocidolite: Crocidolite was used in products like cement and insulators. However, it isn’t as heat-resistant as other asbestos formations. It is also known as “blue asbestos.”
Tremolite: Tremolite was used in consumer products like paint and talcum powder. It was known for its heat-resistant properties. Today, tremolite is no longer mined.
These types fall under 2 mineral families: the amphibole and the serpentine. Only chrysotile asbestos belongs to the serpentine family. All the rest belong to the amphibole family.

Amosite and crocidolite asbestos are considered to be more dangerous than the other types of asbestos. The fibers in these types are fine, sharp, and brittle. Thus, they easily become airborne when disturbed. Crocidolite is the most dangerous, but fortunately, it was not used often.

Illness and Asbestos
If you or someone you love has been exposed to asbestos, there is an increased risk of terminal illness later in life. When asbestos fibers enter the body, they make their way to major organs like the lungs, heart, and chest cavity.

Since asbestos fibers cannot be broken down, they irritate the affected areas for decades. Long-term irritation leads to scarring, fluid buildup, and the development of cancer in some cases.

asbestos_sampleAfter decades of damage, asbestos can cause serious diseases such as:

Asbestosis: Asbestosis occurs when asbestos fibers get stuck in the lungs. As scar tissue and fluids build up in the lung, it gets stiffer. This makes it hard for the affected person to breathe. Symptoms of asbestosis include a constant cough and shortness of breath.
Mesothelioma: Mesothelioma is a rare form of cancer. It occurs when asbestos fibers get stuck in the linings of lungs, abdomen, or heart. As the damage worsens, cells begin to mutate and form cancerous tumors. Symptoms of mesothelioma vary depending on where it develops.
Lung Cancer: Asbestos-related lung cancer is rare, but it can also occur as a result of exposure to asbestos. Unlike mesothelioma, lung cancer develops in the lung itself. Lung cancer symptoms are marked by a bloody cough, chest pain, and sudden weight loss.
There are no cures for either asbestosis or mesothelioma. However, they can be managed with treatment if they are caught early on by doctors.

While asbestosis is dangerous, mesothelioma presents more serious challenges. The symptoms of mesothelioma can often seem vague at first. As a result, many people are not diagnosed until the cancer has spread to other areas in the body. This can greatly reduce a person’s survival time.

Occupations That Used Asbestos
The industries that used asbestos expanded as companies found new uses for the mineral. Huge industries developed around those who manufactured, refined, and sold asbestos-based products. However, these companies also knew that asbestos fibers could cause long-term health problems.red_banner

Though those in charge of asbestos companies knew the risks, they did not tell the public or the U.S. government. It was not until the 1970s that the dangers of asbestos became well known. By that point, thousands of people had already been exposed to asbestos.

Given the wide use of asbestos across dozens of industries, thousands of people were needlessly put at risk.

Occupations and industries that exposed people to asbestos include:

Aerospace: Aircraft mechanics were exposed to asbestos contained in brakes, brake linings, seating gaskets, and insulation.
Automotive: Asbestos was used in auto parts subject to friction such as brakes, clutches, and gaskets.
Construction: Asbestos was used in thousands of construction materials, putting workers who handled them at risk. Certain types of cement, roofing, plaster, wallboard, paint, and other products often used asbestos.
Homemaking: The homes of asbestos workers may have been hotbeds for exposure, too. Wives of asbestos workers may have been exposed to the material from washing the dusty clothing of their husbands. Children who hugged their fathers upon returning from work were also exposed to asbestos.
Manufacturing: Workers in plants where asbestos products were created are at a high risk of illness later on. Cement plants, steel mills, textile mills, and many other manufacturing plants may have put employees in danger.
Metal Working: In the metal industry, protective clothing and work areas often used asbestos because it resisted heat and fire.
Military: Military veterans are one of the largest groups affected by asbestos exposure. Asbestos was used extensively in shipbuilding from World War II until the late 1970s. It was also used in vehicles, military bases, and equipment.
Railroad: Asbestos was used to insulate locomotives. It was also used in brake and clutch linings.
Shipbuilding: Asbestos-based products were widely used aboard ships. Boilers, incinerators, hot water pipes, and steam pipes are just a few dangerous products. Asbestos was also used to soundproof rooms and protect engine rooms from heat.
Asbestos Exposure Sites
Even if you didn’t work directly in the asbestos industry, you could still be at risk. For example, some children and young adults have been diagnosed with mesothelioma in rare cases. Obviously, they did not work in an asbestos trade for decades. They could have been exposed if their houses or schools were made with asbestos-containing products.

Exam Name: Indian Forest Service (Main) Examination, 2019
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